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List of Procedures
List of Procedures

Cardiac

Cardiac Catheterization
A method for taking x-ray images of blood vessels after injecting contrast dye into the blood stream. This procedure checks for blockages in the main vessels of the heart and for myocardial infarction. Results from cardiac catheterization can determine if the patient needs bypass surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) such as angioplasty or atherectomy.

Cardiac Scan
A procedure in which a radioactive substance is injected intravenously and the amount that accumulates in the heart muscle is then measured with a scanner. This scan can reveal a deficiency of blood in a body part due to a partial or complete obstruction of a blood vessel. It can also show myocardial infarction.

Coronary Angioplasty
This procedure is also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), balloon angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this procedure, a cardiac balloon catheter is inserted through an arm or leg to dilate a blocked artery. Stents may be placed to keep the artery open. Angioplasty is done without opening the chest. Generally this procedure is used to correct blockages in one or two arteries that are easy to reach. It is not used for complicated cases.

Coronary Atherectomy
A minimally invasive surgical procedure to open blocked coronary arteries or vein grafts by using a device on the end of a catheter to cut or shave away atherosclerotic plaque that accumulates in the lining of the artery wall. The two primary types of atherectomy are rotational and transluminal extraction. Rotational uses a high speed rotating shaver to grind up plaque. Transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy uses a device that cuts plaque off vessel walls and vacuums it into a bottle. It is used to clear bypass grafts.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG)
Uses a section of the patient's leg vein or an artery in the chest wall to bypass a partial or complete blockage in a coronary artery.

Coronary Angiogram
An x-ray picture produced by angiography.

Electrocardiography (ECG)
Measures the pattern of electric impulses generated by the heart. This test can help determine whether you've had a heart attack or are presently having one. It can also help identify the amount of damage done as well as detect irregular heart beats.

Holter Monitor

This is a machine that continuously records the heart's rhythms. It is usually worn for 24-48 hours during normal activity. The monitor records the heart's electrical activity. It is used to check for any irregular heart rhythms, fainting and heart palpatations. Holter monitoring is used to determine how the heart response to normal activity when:
1. starting a new heart medicine
2. after a heart attack

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillation (ICD)
Controls the electrical stability of the heart.
 
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB)
This procedure known as MIDCAB, makes only a tiny incision or several small incisions in the chest and does not split the sternum bone. It does not use a heart lung machine which means it does not stop the heart's beating. After making small incisions in the patient's chest, the surgeon connects a graft to the coronary arteries. This procedure is done on a beating heart and is called off-pump. MIDCAB can be performed when only one or two arteries are damaged. For bypassing three or more arteries, the conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is recommended. MIDCAB takes less surgery time than CABG and results in a faster recovery with less pain, less bleeding, and less expense.

Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass (OPCAB)
Surgery is performed without putting the patient on a heart-lung machine.

Pacemaker Implantation
Is used for patients with irregular heart rhythms. Fast heart rhythm is known as tachycardia and slow heart rhythm is known as bradycardia.

Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization (PMR)
This procedure uses a laser to create channels in the heart muscle to improve the pumping of blood to the myocardium.

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
Uses balloon catheters to reopen narrowed coronary arteries. Also known as balloon angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention.

Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Treatment for Arrythmia
A medical treatment that employs electrical energy to ablate (destroy) tissues in the heart that are causing rhythm problems. It is used to treat ventricular tachycardia (VT) and atrial fibrillation (AFib).

Stent
Implantation
A thin metal coil which is inserted into an artery to keep it open.


Stress Test
The treadmill test is the most common type of cardiac stress test. This procedure is done while you're exercising and is used to identify abnormal heart rhythms and inadequate blood circulation to the heart.

Trans Myocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR)
Uses a laser beam to improve blood flow to the heart muscle.

Valve Replacement
Replacement of one or more diseased heart valves with porcine (pig) or artificial valves.


Cosmetic 

Botox
The anti-wrinkle injectable made by the Allergan Company used to smooth facial lines. It is also used to treat severe migraine headaches.

Breast Augmentation
A surgical procedure to enlarge the breasts through the placement of breast implants under the breast tissue or chest muscles.

Breast Lift (Mastopexy)
A breast lift removes excess skin and tightens the surrounding tissue to reshape the breast. This procedure lifts and firms the breast.

Breast Reconstruction
Rebuilding the breast after mastectomy; using an implant or other body tissue.

Breast Reduction
Removal of excess tissue and skin from the breasts. Generally, this surgery also includes reconstruction of breast shape.

Brow Lift
This procedure minimizes the creases that occur between the eyebrows, and raises a low or sagging brow.

Buttocks Lift (Gluteal Lift)
A surgical procedure which involves placing implants into the buttocks.

Buttocks Augmentation
A surgical procedure which inserts artificial implants into the buttocks in order to enhance their size and shape.

Cheek Implants
A surgeon will make an incision in the upper mouth near the top of the gum line and slide the implants into place.

Chin Surgery
The doctor makes an incision either under the lower lip inside the mouth or under the chin.

Ear Surgery (Otoplasty)

Cosmetic or reconstructive surgery on the outer ear. Surgery is done to improve the appearance of the outer ear (most often to flatten protruding ears) and also to fix a damaged ear.

Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)
Removal of excess fat and skin from around the eyelids to reduce bags under the eyes, puffiness and wrinkles.

Face Lift (Rhytidectomy)
A surgical procedure that takes off excessive skin, tightens the skin, reshapes the face, takes away wrinkles and sagging skin. It gives the face a more youthful appearance.

Forehead Lift
This procedure minimizes the lines that develop across the forehead and tightens the forehead skin.

High-intensity Pulsed Light
A non-invasive procedure which does not destroy outer tissue. It can be used as an alternative or in combination with microdermabrasion, chemical peel, and laser resurfacing.

Injectable Fillers
They can make lips fuller, lighten and diminish wrinkles and lessen the appearance of scars. Some of the different types of fillers are collagen, hyaluronic acid (such as Juvederm and Restylane), human fat, and botulinum toxin (such as Botox).

Lip Enhancement
A cosmetic surgery that enlarges the lips. This procedure can also reduce the fine lines and wrinkles above the top lip. Presently, injectable fillers containing hyaluronic acid like Restylane and Juvederm are very popular.

Liposuction
A surgical procedure which suctions out fat from a particular part of the body.

Neck Lift (platysmaplasty)
Involves surgical procedures which remove excess skin (cervicoplasty) and remove or reposition the neck muscles (platysmaplasty). As alternatives to surgery, liposuction can remove excess neck fat and botox injections can take away the fullness around the neck and make it look more attractive. The surgeon makes incisions under the chin and/or behind the ears to access the neck muscle (platysma) and perform the appropriate procedure. A less invasive procedure can be done by making small incisions and using an endoscope.

Nose Surgery (rhinoplasty)
Reconstruction of the nose and removal of the septum's deformities are done to open blocked nasal passages and also improve the patient's appearance.

Skin Graft
A piece of skin that is surgically removed from one part of the body and transplanted or attached to another part. Skin grafts can be done for: large wounds, burns, ulcers that do not heal, reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or loss or skin cancer.

Spider Veins
Small superficial veins which can be treated with laser or injection.

Thigh Lift (thighplasty)
It reshapes the thigh by reducing excess skin and fat.

Tummy Tuck (abdominoplasty)
A surgical procedure to reduce the excess skin and fat around the abdomen.

Varicose Veins
Veins can be sealed off with injections (sclerotherapy), laser, intense-pulsed light therapy or radio-frequency ablation. Veins can also be removed with surgery. This procedure is done to improve appearance but also to relieve pain or pressure.


Craniofacial Reconstruction

Cleft Lip Repair
A cleft lip is a hereditary deformity of the upper lip. The lip, nose and palate structures do not fuse correctly before birth. This reconstruction is done to make the lip and palate function normally and to improve the patient's appearance.

Jaw Reconstruction (Distraction Osteogenesis)
This is a procedure to repair refractures of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandible) jaw where bone loss has occurred, as well as for underdeveloped jaws, cleft lips and palates and facial growth deformities.

Maxillofacial Surgery
Surgical procedures which are used for facial and oral lacerations, teeth which have been knocked out or displaced, fractured facial bones (cheek, nose or eye socket) and fractured upper and lower jaws.


Dental
 

Dental Bridges
Bridges are used to replace missing teeth and include fixed dental bridges (cannot be removed), cantilevered bridges and resin-bonded bridges. Bridges require shaping of the teeth surrounding a missing tooth. Crowns are then placed on the artificially shaped tooth and then attached to a tooth.

Dental Bonding
Done with a dental composite material which looks like enamel and dentin and is applied into a cavity or onto the tooth's surface and sculpted to make it look like it is part of the tooth. This procedure works well for broken, chipped, discolored and decayed teeth.

Dental Crowns
A crown is used to completely cover a tooth.

Dental Fillings
Fillings are done to close cavities in teeth after the decay has been removed.

Dental Implants
A surgical procedure to replace a tooth in which a titanium implant is placed in the bone. After a period of healing, an artificial tooth is connected to the implant by either a screw or cement.

Periodontal Surgery
Removal of infected tissue from the gums and reshaping of the bone underlying the gums. This procedure is done to prevent further spreading of the gum infection.

Root Canal Treatment
A dental procedure which saves a tooth in which the living tissue is chronically diseased or has died. The procedure cleans out the dead or dying nerve tissue as well as any infection from the inside of a tooth.

Teeth Whitening
Helps to remove stains which can come from food, drink and smoking. Bleaching the teeth gives you whiter and more clean teeth.

Tooth Extractions 
The removal of a tooth that is diseased, decayed or broken, has advanced periodontal disease and can no longer be saved through a dental filling or root canal. A tooth is removed either by pulling or cutting it out. An extraction can be done under local or general anesthesia.
                                                                                                                                  
Veneers
A veneer is an overlay made of porcelain which is used as a cosmetic procedure to make teeth look more perfect.


Diagnostic Procedures

Angiography
A procedure in which contrast material is injected into a patient in order to enable the visualization by X-ray of such areas as the vascular system, pulmonary system, brain and renal system. It is used for diagnosing such conditions as clogged or stenotic arteries, aneurysms, obstruction of pulmonary arterial branches, renal hypertension, congenital renal problems and malfunctioning kidneys as well as other conditions.

Arthroscopy
An examination of a joint, usually the knee. A small incision is made and an endoscope is inserted through the incision. This procedure is used to diagnose disease or injury inside a joint.

Barium X-rays
Used to examine the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. Taken by mouth, barium allows the doctor to check for abnormalities of the upper digestive tract. To examine the lower gastrointestinal tract, barium is inserted into the rectum and colon.

Biopsy
A test in which tissue or cells are removed from the body for examination under a microscope.

Bone Marrow Biopsy
This procedure which draws tissues and cells from the marrow of one of the large bones is used to determine if there are any abnormal cells, such as cancer cells, and to look for such conditions as leukemia, anemia and lymphoma.

Bone Densitometry
A procedure used to measure bone density and diagnose osteoporosis. The most popular and reliable technique for this procedure is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

Bronchoscopy
This procedure performed with a bronchoscope, is done to examine the lining of the bronchial tubes and to check for abnormal growths and damage or blockage to lung tissues and air pathways.

Cholecystography
This procedure takes an X-ray of the gall bladder in order to diagnose gall bladder disease.

Computed Tomography (CT)
CT scanning also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanning is a medical imaging procedure that uses x-rays to show cross-sectional images of the body. CT imaging produces cross-sectional images or "slices" of areas of the body. These cross-sectional images are used for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Cystoscopy
Used to examine the urethra and bladder by inserting an endoscope into these organs. This procedure is used to check for bladder stones, bladder cancer and prostate problems.

Electroencephalography (EEG)
Measures electric activity produced by the brain. This test is used to diagnose sleep disorders and seizures.

Electromyography (EMG)
This procedure measures electric discharges produced within muscles. This procedure is used to help diagnose muscle or nerve disorders.

Endoscopy
A procedure in which an instrument known as an endoscope is used to examine the interior of a tubular or hollow organ.


Fluoroscopy
A type of medical imaging that shows a continuous X-ray image on a monitor. It is used to diagnose or treat patients by displaying the movement of a body part through an instrument (fluoroscope) or through dye contrast in the body. During a fluoroscopy procedure, an X-ray beam is passed through the body. The image is transmitted to a monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. It is used in many types of exams and procedures. Some examples are:
- Barium X-rays and enemas (to view movement through the GI tract)
- Catheter insertion (to direct the placement of a catheter during angiography or angioplasty)
- Blood flow studies (to visualize blood flow to organs)
- Orthopedic surgery (to view fractures and fracture treatments)

Hepatitis Diagnosis and Treatment
Medical tests include blood, urine and liver tests. AST-ALT test measures liver enzymes (transaminases) that indicate liver inflammation. Liver Biopsy is the best way to check for chronic liver disease. The MRI or CT scan can show the presence of scarred tissue, and an enlarged or shrunken liver. The current worldwide standard of care for chronic hepatitis C is a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin.

Laparotomy
Abdominal surgery performed to diagnose and sometimes treat abdominal disease and a variety of conditions.

Mammography
A type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to capture images (mammograms) of the internal structures of the breasts. Mammography can help detect breast cancer in its earliest stages. Two types of mammography are:
- Screen-film-mammography - X-rays are beamed through the breast to a cassette containing a screen and film that must be developed. The image is referred to as a mammogram.
- Full field digital mammography - X-rays are beamed through the breast to an image receptor. A scanner converts the information to a digital picture which is sent to a digital monitor and/or a printer.

Mammogram
An X-ray image of the breast.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Uses a strong magnetic field (instead of X-rays) and a computer to produce X-ray type pictures to study the body's internal structures.

Myelogram (Myelography)
X-ray of the spinal canal and spinal cord using a spinal tap and injection of dye. This procedure is used to identify ruptured discs.

Postitron Emission Tomography (PET)
This is a nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces 3D images of functional processes in the body. It is especially effective for investigating traumas and diseases of the brain and is helpful in the early detection of cancer.

Radiography
A technique for generating and recording an x-ray pattern for the purpose of providing the user with a static image after the x-ray exposure. It may also be used during the planning of radiation therapy treatment. During a radiographic procedure, an x-ray beam is passed through the body. A portion of the x-rays are absorbed or scattered by the internal structure and the remaining x-ray pattern is transmitted to a detector so that an image may be recorded for later evaluation. The recoding of the pattern may occur on film or by electronic means. It is used in examinations and procedures where a record of a static image is needed. Some examples are:
- Dental examinations
- Orthopedic evaluations
- Chiropractic exams

Radionuclide Scan
A way to study various body functions by intravenous injections of radioactive material into the patient and then taking photographs or videotape with a special camera or scanner.

Sigmoidoscopy
Used to examine the rectum and the lower portion of the large intestine (sigmoid colon) not the entire colon. It is used to examine the colon for polyps or cancer.

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
Another form of radionuclide scanning, similar to PET.

Ultrasound Scans
Also known as ultrasonography, uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body.

Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Used to directly view the upper part of your digestive tract. It is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of many upper gastrointestinal conditions.

Volume Computed Tomography (VCT)
VCT is a quick and convenient procedure in which contrast material is injected through a catheter into a patient's elbow. After the procedure, the patient receives a VCT digital image disc for future follow-up. This procedure is non-invasive as compared to cardiac catheterization which is an invasive procedure. This technique provides the highest quality image in the shortest time and is extremely accurate in detecting coronary stenosis.

X-rays
Electromagnetic waves are used in X-ray machines to produce images of the body's internal structures from which diagnoses can be made.


Gastroenterology

Cholecystectomy (laparoscopic)
This surgery uses a laparoscope (an instrument used to see the inside of the body) to remove the gall bladder. It is performed through several small incisions rather than through one large incision.

Colonoscopy
A procedure which uses an instrument called a colonoscope to visually examine the inner surface of the colon.

Gastrectomy
Excision of a part or all of the stomach.

Lithotripsy (shockwave treatment for kidney stones)
A procedure to crush kidney stones inside the body which are too large to pass by normal elimination. This does not require any surgical incisions and decreases the chance of infection and damage to the kidney.

Liver Biopsy
A diagnostic test in which liver tissue or cells are removed from the body for examination under a microscope.

Nephrectomy
Removal of a kidney.

Polyp Surgery
Polyps are usually removed during a colonoscopy. However, if the polyp is too big or the malignancy too advanced to be removed during the colonoscopy, then the surgery is done by making an incision in the abdominal wall.

Renal Dialysis
Mechanical and chemical method of removing wastes from the body of a patient whose kidneys no longer function normally.


Gynecology

Hysterectomy
The surgical removal of the uterus.


Obesity

Bariatric Surgery
The term that encompasses all of the surgical treatments for morbid obesity not only for gastric bypass.

Gastric Bypass Surgery
Surgery that is done to help you lose weight. A gastric bypass divides the stomach into a small upper pouch and a larger lower pouch and then re-arranges the small intestine to allow both pouches to stay connected to it. Surgeons have different ways to reconnect the intestines thereby leading to various names for Gastric Bypass procedures.

Lap Band Bariatric Surgery
This is the brand name of the FDA-approved adjustable gastric band which is a silicone belt that goes around the top of the stomach.


Ophthalmology

Cataract Surgery
The removal of the natural lens of the eye that has an opaque or cloudy area. This lens is replaced with a synthetic lens.
                                                                                                                                              
LASIK
A surgical procedure which reduces a person's dependency on glasses or contact lenses. LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis and is a procedure that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering of the front of the eye) using a laser.

Vitrectomy
A surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humor from the eye.


Orthopedic

Arthroscopy with Ligament Reconstruction
This surgical procedure uses arthroscopic techniques to rebuild the ligament.

Hip Replacement (full)
Surgical replacement of the hip joint. A metal ball replaces the worn head of the thigh bone and a cup (usually plastic) replaces the worn socket.

Hip Resurfacing (Birmingham)
Hip resurfacing surgery conserves rather than removes the femoral head (thighbone). It is considered a bone conserving procedure compared to traditional hip replacement surgery. Also, it uses the metal on metal implant as opposed to the metal on plastic joints used for traditional hip replacement surgery. Birmingham hip is the gold standard for resurfacing design.

Knee Arthroplasty
A small incision is made at the side of the joint and an arthroscope is inserted. This minimally invasive knee surgery involves removal of bone or cartilage or repair of tendons or ligaments.

Kneecap Removal (Patellectomy)

Removal of the kneecap (patella) is done by making an incision around the kneecap, severing the muscles and tendons around it and then removing the kneecap. The muscles and tendons are then sewn back together. This procedure is usually done for:
1. fracture of the kneecap
2. recurrent dislocations of the kneecap
3. severe arthritis of the kneecap

Knee Replacement (total)
Involves surgery to replace the damaged bone and cartilage of the knee.

Spinal Fusion
A surgical procedure that fuses the vertebrae in the spine.


Reproductive Technologies (Assisted)

Blastocyst Transfer
An embryo transfer procedure used during in vitro fertilization.

Donor Eggs
An embryo formed from the egg of a woman (a donor) is transferred to another woman (the recipient) who cannot conceive with her own eggs.

Embryo Cryopreservation
A procedure in which embryos are preserved through freezing (cryopreservation) for transfer at a later time.

Embryo Freezing
A process in which frozen embryos are thawed in order to choose the most suitable ones to be placed in the woman's uterus.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfers (GIFT)
Uses a laparoscope (a fiber-optic instrument) to transfer unfertilized eggs and sperm into a woman's fallopian tubes through small incisions in her abdomen. To do this the fallopian tubes must be healthy.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Sperm is injected directly into the oocyte (egg) by microsurgical instruments. The fertilization rate will increase and embryo transfer will be performed after the zygotes (fertilized eggs) develop into embryos.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

A woman's eggs are extracted and these eggs are fertilized in the lab with sperm. Then the embryo(s) is placed into the woman's uterus where it develops. Average cost of one IVF cycle in the US is $12,400. However, usually more than one cycle is needed.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

A procedure in which a single cell is extracted from an in-vitro fertilized embryo so that its DNA can be tested to see whether it is at risk for developing a genetic disease. Genetic testing can identify a host of potential diseases as well as the embryo's sex. It is often done when parents carry genes which can possibly pass on certain illness to their children.

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfers (ZIFT)
A woman's eggs are fertilized in a laboratory and then a laparoscope is used to transfer the fertilized eggs (zygotes) into her fallopian tubes. In order to do this procedure, the fallopian tubes must be healthy.


Surgeries

Arthroscopic Surgery
A surgical procedure in which a joint (arthro) is viewed (scopy) using a small camera. This gives the doctor a clear view of the inside of the knee. Small incisions are made in the knee and a surgeon inserts an arthroscope (a small thin camera instrument) into the knee joint. The arthroscope sends the image to a television monitor where the surgeon can see everything in great detail. Small surgical instruments are inserted through other incisions around the knee. Arthroscopy is used to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Cosmetic Surgery
Its principal purpose is to improve the appearance.

Craniofacial Surgery
This surgery is done to repair and reshape the face and skull and restore the normal functioning of the patient's mouth, jaw and sensory organs as well as to improve the person's aesthetic appearance. Surgeons can now disassemble the facial and skull bones and place them in their original anatomic positions. The use of titanium plates and screws enables surgeons to achieve greater anatomic movements that were not available before. Recent advances in craniofacial reconstruction include using surgical plastics instead of bone grafts to fill in missing pieces of bone, and computerized imaging programs that give doctors a clearer picture of the expected results.

Da Vinci Robotic Surgical System
This is a robotic surgical platform designed to enable complex procedures of all types to be performed through 1-2 centimeter incisions. It is a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open surgery and laparoscopy. The major benefits over traditional approaches are greater surgical precision, increased range of motion, better visualization and improved access. Benefits to patients are a shorter hospital stay, less pain, less blood loss, less risk of infection and a quicker recovery.

Gamma Knife Surgery
This procedure is used to treat such conditions as brain tumors and trigeminal neuralgia. No surgical incision is required. Beams of gamma radiation focus directly on the tumor and the surrounding tissue remains unharmed. This non-invasive method of cerebral surgery is performed with extreme precision and can be done in one session.

Minimally Invasive Surgery
Operative procedure performed in a way which results in the smallest possible incision or no incision at all; includes laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted, thoracoscopic, and endoscopic procedures.

Oral Surgery
The branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases and deformities of the oral and maxillofacial area.

Plastic Surgery
A surgical procedure concerned with the construction, reconstruction, restoration or improvement in the appearance or shape of face and body structures that are damaged, destroyed, defective or missing.

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)
VATS is a surgery that enables doctors to view the inside of the chest cavity by using a small video camera that is introduced into the patient's body through a scope. This procedure requires making very small incisions resulting in a less painful experience and shorter hospital stay. This surgery is also helpful in diagnosing certain types of pneumonia, collapsed lungs and chest wall tumors and infections.


Transplantations


Kidney
A surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function. The kidneys remove excess fluid and waste from the blood. When the kidneys are no longer able to function, dangerous levels of fluid and waste accumulate in the body which is known as kidney failure.

Heart (
Cardiac Transplantation)
This is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with severe coronary artery disease or end-stage heart failure. There are approximately 3,500 transplants performed annually with about 800,000 people requiring a new heart worldwide.

Liver
Replacement of a diseased liver with a donor's healthy liver with compatible immunological characteristics. Liver transplants are performed on patients suffering from liver failure caused by liver cancer, chronic hepatitis or biliary cirrhosis.

Pancreas
A surgery to implant a healthy pancreas from a donor into a patient whose pancreas no longer functions properly.

Stem Cell Transplants
1. Bone Marrow Transplant -
Bone Marrow is soft material found in the center of bones which is responsible for producing red and white blood cells as well as other components of blood. The transplant is a procedure in which a patient's bone marrow is replaced with either donated bone marrow or the patient's own bone marrow that was collected and stored. Bone marrow transplantation is not intended to replace the patient's failing bone marrow. The donated marrow is intended to help a recipient produce components of his or her blood compromised by disease or by treatment such as chemotherapy. Some diseases treatable through bone marrow transplantation include: Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia, anemic and immune deficiency conditions.
2. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) - the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cell or blood which can come from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or hematopoietic stem cells derived from placenta. This procedure can be helpful in the treatment of blood diseases, bone marrow diseases and certain kinds of cancer.


Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Acupressure
An ancient healing practice that uses the fingers and hands to press certain acupuncture points on the skin's surface to help stimulate the body's natural ability to heal itself. It is known to be an effective method for treating tension and stress and promotes the circulation of qi (chi) and blood.

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is the practice of inserting very fine needles into the skin to stimulate specific points (called acupoints) in the body for therapeutic purposes. The acupoints are stimulated to balance the movement of energy (chi or qi) in the body to restore health. Acupuncture involves the stimulation of certain specific points on the body along "chi" or "qi" pathways called "meridians". These points can be stimulated by inserting and withdrawing needles, applying heat ("moxibustion"), massage, a laser beam or a combination of these methods.

Aromatherapy
Aromatherapy means "treatments using scents". It is a body treatment that uses botanical oils such as lemon, lavender, rose, and peppermint. The essential oils are massaged into the skin, inhaled directly or diffused to scent the entire room. Aromatherapy is used for pain relief, skincare, to get rid of fatigue, reduce stress and promote a feeling of well-being and relaxation.

Chinese Food Therapy
Dietary recommendations are made based on your body's condition. When you do not have a balanced diet you may have health problems and certain foods and herbs will be prescribed to bring your body back to a balanced state.

Chinese Herbal Medicine
Chinese herbal medicine takes natural plant, animal and mineral substances and combines them into formulas to treat specific symptoms and disorders. These substances are usually taken in the form of teas, pills, tablets and powders. Herbs can be used to cleanse and detoxify the body, improve digestion, reduce inflammation, strengthen immunity, and help regulate hormonal and metabolic activity among other things.

Cupping
A type of Chinese massage which places glass cups on the body. A lit match is placed inside the cup and then removed before placing the cup against the skin. The heated air in the cup expands and allows the cup to stick to the skin via suction. The cups act as a kind of reverse pressure massage.

Gua Sha
A type of dermabrasion using a hand-held scraper to irritate various dermal areas and eliminate germs.

Manipulative Therapies

These therapies involve the use of a practitioner's hands, fingers and arms to apply pressure to acupoints throughout the body. These treatments are designed to improve circulation to muscles and soft tissue. They help to reduce edema and inflammation as well as reduce muscle and nerve pain.

Qigong
An ancient form of exercise which helps improve your health, calm your mind, and revitalize your body. These exercises can be done to help treat an existing illness or as a means of preventive therapy. It also helps to increase your energy levels and is believed to slow down the aging process.

Tai Chi
These exercises are based on the balance of the two fundamental forces of Yin and Yang. Tai Chi's movements are designed to gently stretch the joints and keep the body fluid and relaxed. It aims to unblock and balance your vital force, or Chi, which flows throughout the body in a system of meridians. Tai Chi has over a hundred flowing and continuous movements.

TCM Diagnosis
Methods of diagnosis include observing, listening, smelling, asking questions, and tongue and pulse diagnosis. Some of the other diagnostic procedures include: The Yin/Yang and Five Element Theories, Zang Fu Theory, Meridian Theory and Triple Warmer Theory. There are also the Four Stages Theory of the progression of warm diseases, the Six Levels Theory of penetration of cold diseases and Eight Principles System of disease classification. TMC is known to be effective in treating headaches, neck pain, backpain, sciatica, stomach aches, depression, sleep disorders and other conditions.

Tui-Na Massage
An Oriental bodywork therapy that has been used in China for 2000 years. Tui-na uses massage and manipulation techniques to help establish a better flow of Chi (Qi). It is known to be effective for the treatment of specific musculoskeletal disorders and chronic stress-related disorders of the digestive, respiratory and reproductive systems.